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The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging (English and Chinese)

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The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

 

迫切需求:推动针对衰老及衰老相关疾病研究,使老年人群更加健康寿

Originally published at: http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2014.1210

Abstract

Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels.

 摘  要

由于全球人口老龄化,以及由此衍生而来的老年非传染性疾病的增加和经济负担的加重,迫切需要加强对老龄化以及老年性疾病的研究,以帮助老年人健康而又丰富多彩地颐养天年。为达到这个目标,我们呼吁出台以下政策:

(1)投入更多资金专门用于研究和开发如何改善衰退性老化过程以及如何延长人类寿命并使其健康多彩;

(2)采取一系列激励性措施,鼓励企业、学术团体、公共部门和政府性组织投身于该项研究和开发;

(3)在学术、产业、公共政策制定、政府及政府间等多个层面,针对与衰老相关的研究、开发和教育,建立并扩展相关的合作与咨询机制、规划和制度。

  

The challenge of the aging society and potential solutions

老龄化社会的挑战和可能的解决方案

Over the past decades, the average life expectancy has increased globally, reaching a world-wide average of about 70 years in 2014 (6 years longer than in 1990) and around 80 in the developed countries (compared to about 50 years in the developed countries in the early 20th century). This development has been achieved especially due to improvements in sanitation, medical advances, rising living standards and a decline in child mortality. Currently, while the longest life expectancies are still found in the “developed” countries, the fastest and largest increase has been recorded in the “developing” world. Considering the demographics of the world population, between 2000 and 2050 the proportion of people over 60 years will double from about 11% to 22%, which, in absolute terms, means an increase from 605 million to 2 billion people [1,2,3].

在过去十多年来,全球范围内平均预期寿命有所延长,在2014年世界范围内平均约为70岁(比1990年增长了6年),发达国家达到80岁左右(20世纪初发达国家为50岁左右)。这一进步主要归功于卫生条件改善、医学技术进步、生活水平提升及婴儿夭折率的下降。现今虽然预期寿命最长的国家仍然是“发达”国家,然而预期寿命增长最快、范围最广的地区却是“发展中”国家。从世界人口统计学考虑,2000-2050年60岁以上人口的比例将增长一倍,从现在的11%增长到22%,从绝对数量上说,这意味着该年龄段人口规模从6.05亿增加到20亿[1,2,3]。

Although the increasing life expectancy generally reflects positive human development, new challenges are arising. They stem from the fact that growing older is still inherently associated with biological and cognitive degeneration, although the severity and speed of cognitive decline, physical frailty and psychological impairment can vary between individuals.

虽然持续增长的预期寿命通常反映出人类良好的发展状态,然而新的挑战也随之而来。主要问题来自自然老化固有的会产生生理与认知方面的退化,尽管认知减退, 身体虚弱和心理障碍的严重程度与速度,在个体间的情况却各不相同。

Nonetheless, degenerative aging processes are the major underlying cause for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cancer, ischemic heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and others. Mental health deterioration due to chronic neurodegenerative diseases represents the largest cause of disability in the world, responsible for over 20% of years lived with disability. Hence, major efforts must be directed toward their alleviation. According to the World Health Organizationfls (WHO) “Draft Twelfth General Programme of Work” (April 13, 2013), one of WHO leadership priorities is “Addressing the challenge of non-communicable diseases” [4], and addressing aging fits into this definition and is even necessary to accomplish this priority goal.

尽管如此,退化性的衰老过程是造成非传染性疾病(NCDs)的主因,这包括癌症、局部缺血性心脏病、中风、二型糖尿病、阿尔茨海默病和其他疾病。心理健康度退化缘于慢性神经退行性疾病,后者导致了20%的生命时间在残疾中度过,成为世界上造成残疾的首要原因。是世界上导致残疾的最主要原因。因此,降低慢性神经退行性疾病是主攻方向。根据世界卫生组织(WHO)“第十二个工作总规划草案”(2013年4月13日),WHO的一个主要领导任务是“应对非传染性疾病的挑战”[4],而应对衰老符合这一要求并对完成这一首要目标必不可少。

Aging also increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases like pneumonia and influenza. Moreover, the susceptibility to injury and trauma (such as falls and concussions), due to the impairment of balance and mental state, and even falling victim to violence, are strongly increased by the aging process. Also, the processes of aging exacerbate and reinforce the effects of other risk factors of non-communicable diseases (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and harmful use of alcohol). In sum, aging-related health decline is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and should be addressed according to the severity of the problem. Because of these severe and negative effects, aging is already regarded as one of the greatest economic and societal challenges that most countries – especially in the industrialized world – will face in the coming decades.

衰老同样增加了感染性疾病的发病率和死亡率,比如肺炎和流感。除此之外,平衡系统和精神障碍、甚至由暴力受害可造成损伤和外伤(如跌落和脑震荡),其发生的敏感程度在衰老过程中大幅增加。同时,衰老的过程加剧且巩固了其他非传染性疾病危险因素(使用烟草、不健康饮食、不爱运动和滥用酒精)的危险程度。总的来说,衰老相关的健康下降问题是世界范围内死亡和发病率的主因,应根据其问题的严重程度应予应对。因为这些严重和消极的影响,衰老已然被多数国家–特别对于工业化国家来说-视作在未来几十年对经济和社会最重大的挑战。

Several reports from national governments, international organizations, such as the United Nations (UN) and WHO, as well as insurance companies, welfare organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), have referred to the socio-economic and health-related challenges of aging societies [5,6,7,8,9]. These include:

多国政府、包括联合国(UN)和WHO在内的国际组织、以及保险公司、福利组织和非政府组织(NGOs)均发表了数份报告,提及老龄社会的社会经济及健康相关的挑战问题[5,6,7,8,9],这些报告包括:

  • Increases of health care costs and financial stress for social insurance systems due to the increasing probability of suffering from diseases associated with aging.

随年龄增长导致罹患疾病可能性的增加,以及由此带来的社保体系中健康护理成本和经济压力的增加。

  • Dementia is often mentioned as especially problematic since it additionally requires intensive care-giving, imposing a heavy burden on working relatives or demanding significant additional costs for the provision of professional care.

老年痴呆症在这些报告中经常被作为疑难问题提及,因为老年痴呆症病人需要更多精心的照顾,从而给需要工作的亲属带来沉重的负担,或者需要在专业护理方面投入明显更高的费用。

  • A declining active workforce is already occurring, especially in industrialized countries. Although people might want to participate in the workforce for a longer time, they may not be able to, due to cognitive and physical decline.

劳动生力军的减少已经成为现实,尤其是在那些工业化的国家。尽管有些人可能打算从事劳动更长的时间,但由于认知能力和身体机能的衰退,他们可能无法做到。

  • An increasing number of pensioners need to be financed, while a larger number of working people need to provide care services that must remain affordable.

一方面需要为越来越多的养老金领取者筹集资金,但另一方面,越来越多还在工作岗位上的人需要提供负担得起的护理服务。

  • There are considerable concerns over the quality of life and health status of the elderly due to age-related diseases, biological degeneration and increased risk of succumbing to severe chronic and life-threatening conditions.

由于老龄化疾病、生理上的衰退,以及罹患严重慢性危重疾病风险的增加,对老年人的生活质量和健康状况的关注也相当的多。

  • An overall decline in the quality of life deprives many elderly from full social, cultural and intellectual engagement.

由于生活质量的整体下降,很多老年人丧失了对社交、文化、智力活动的充分参与。

The challenge of the aging society has been widely recognized and numerous research and development programs around the globe have been initiated to tackle age-related diseases, such as the Campaign to Prevent Alzheimerfls Disease and/or WHO Diabetes Prevention Program, as well as to develop care-related technologies such as care robots, fall detectors and technologies for Ambient Assisted Living or making housing and infrastructure more friendly and accessible to the elderly. Although such investments are laudable and understandable, given the urgency of the problem, they all represent only punctual and rather ad hoc solutions.

老龄化社会所带来的挑战已被广泛认可,全球范围内已经启动了不少研发项目来应对与老龄化相关的疾病,例如,老年痴呆预防运动、WHO糖尿病预防计划,还有一些与护理相关的技术(如护理机器人、跌倒检测仪)以及用于改善周边生活环境或使家居生活设施对老年人更加友好和方便的技术等。尽管这些投入是值得称赞的、可以理解的,但考虑到问题的紧迫性,它们也只能提供时效性、特设的解决方案。

In particular, assistive technologies, infrastructural changes or improving nursing and palliative care facilities, do not solve the actual problem of biological degeneration associated with the aging process. Medical research and development efforts currently are focused mainly on single diseases, like Alzheimer’s dementia, heart disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer, etc. The underlying degenerative aging processes, determinative for the emergence of those diseases, are often underemphasized.

尤其是,辅助性的技术、基础设施的改变,或者改进护理和姑息治疗设备,并不能真正解决与衰老相关的生理性衰退问题。目前医学上的研发主要着眼于单一疾病,如老年痴呆、心脏病、骨质疏松症、糖尿病、癌症等,但却常常忽视了导致这些疾病的深层次的原因,即衰老的过程。

While the degenerating aging process, involving the accumulation of structural damage, impairment of metabolic balance and functioning, is a disabling and debilitating process that requires prevention and treatment, the achievement of healthy longevity, characterized by the maintenance of functional capacity and robustness, is its cure.

衰老的过程,包括生理结构性损伤的积累,代谢平衡和代谢功能的减退,是一种使人残废和虚弱的过程,需要加以预防和治疗,而以维持机体的功能和强健为标志达到健康长寿,则为其治疗方法。

Some effects of degenerative aging processes can be modified by social and economic factors, as well as lifestyles (diet, exercise, etc.), but only to a modest extent. Hence, there is a need to promote research into the biology of aging and aging-related diseases as the way to improve the health of the elderly more substantially.

衰老过程所带来的某些影响能够被一些社会经济方面的因素以及生活方式(如节食、锻炼等)予以纠正,但只能在一个有限的范围内。因此,有必要推进对生物性衰老以及与衰老相关的疾病的研究,以更加在实质上提高老年人的健康水平。

New directions in research and development take a more holistic approach for tackling the degenerative processes and negative biological effects of human aging, addressing several major fundamental causes of aging and aging-related diseases at once and in an interrelated manner. For example, at the 2013 US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Geroscience Summit, the following priority research areas have been identified: Adaptation to Stress, Epigenetics, Inflammation, Macromolecular Damage, Metabolism, Proteostasis, and Stem Cells/Regeneration [10,11], but there are several other examples of similar approaches, prioritizing research of major sets of aging processes [12,13,14,15,16,17]. Instead of targeting single age-related diseases, the mechanisms of the aging process itself are being analyzed with the goal of finding ways for intervention and prevention.

新的研发方向采取一种整体性的方法来应对衰退过程以及由年龄增长带来的负面的生理性影响,这种方法着眼于将衰老的几个主要根本性原因和与衰老相关的疾病放在一起,以一种相互关联的方式进行研究。例如,在2013年美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)举办的Geroscience峰会上,提出了以下优先研究的领域:适应压力、表观遗传学、炎症、高分子损伤、新陈代谢、蛋白质体内平衡、干细胞/再生[10,11],但也存在其他一些类似研究方法的例子优先于对老化过程主要原因的研究[12,13,14,15,16,17]。这些机制针对衰老过程本身,其目标是找到干预和预防的方法,而非仅着眼于单一与衰老相关的疾病。

Such approaches are very promising, for the following reasons:

这些方法将大有可为,原因如下:

  • They are already supported by scientific proofs of concept, involving the evidential increase in healthy lifespan in animal models and the emerging technological capabilities to intervene into fundamental aging processes [12,18,19,20,21,22,23].

它们由已证明的的科学原理作支持,包括证实了动物样本中健康长寿个体的显著增加,以及新兴技术已经具备介入衰老过程的能力[12,18,19,20,21,22,23]。

  • They can provide solutions to a number of non-communicable, age-related diseases, insofar as such diseases are strongly determined by degenerative aging processes (such as chronic inflammation, cross-linkage of macromolecules, somatic mutations, loss of stem cell populations, and others) [24,25,26,27,28]. Moreover, they are likely to decrease susceptibility of the elderly also to communicable diseases due to improvements in immunity [29].

它们能够为一些非传染性、与衰老有关的疾病提供解决方案,目前包括退行性衰老导致的疾病 (例如,慢性炎症、高分子交联、体细胞突变、干细胞群的流失等)[24,25,26,27,28]。此外,由于它们能够提高免疫力,也很可能能够降低老年人对传染性疾病的易感性[29]。

  • The innovative, applied results of such research and development will lead to sustainable solutions for a large array of age-related medical and social challenges that may be globally applicable.

这些研究开发所得出的创新性、实用性结论,将能够引领具有可持续性的解决方案,以应对由衰老引发的大量医疗和社会问题,而且,这些解决方案可能是全球适用的。

  • Such research and development should be supported on ethical grounds, to provide equal health care chances for the elderly as for the young.

这些研究开发应当在道德立场上得到支持,对老年人和年轻人一视同仁,提供同等的保健机会。

Therefore it is the societal duty, especially of the professionals in biology, medicine, health care, economy and socio-political organizations to strongly recommend greater investments in research and development dealing with the understanding of mechanisms associated with the human biological aging process and translating these insights into safe, affordable and universally available applied technologies and treatments.

因此,强烈建议在研究和开发方面投入更多资源,以了解与人类生理性衰老过程有关的机制,并将研究结论转化成为安全、实惠、具有普遍适用性的技术和疗法,是一种社会责任,对那些生物学、医学、保健学、经济学方面的专业人士,以及社会政治组织来说尤其如此。

Thus there may be great benefits for society, the economy and our overall quality of life to prioritize and accelerate the research, development and innovation in the field, including the following:

因此,优先并加速在这一领域的研究、开发和创新,可能能够为社会、经济和我们的整体生活质量带来巨大效益,包括下列项目:

  • Regenerative medicine – including the development of stem cell technologies and their products, in vivo and ex vivo regeneration of organs and tissues; controlled cell death, immuno-elimination of senescent or cancer cells.

再生医学-包括干细胞技术的研究和相关产品的开发、器官和组织的体内再生和体外再生、控制细胞的死亡、对衰老细胞或癌细胞的免疫消除。

  • Tissue engineering – culturing and assembling of a wide variety of replacement organs and tissues, vascular and non-vascular, using such methods as 3D tissue printing, biodegradable scaffolding, bioreactors or self-organization.

组织工程学-利用3D组织打印、生物可降解支架、生物反应器、自组织等方法,培养和组装各种替代性的器官和组织,包括带血管的和不带血管的。

  • Regulation of whole body homeostasis, including regulators of the circadian rhythm, neurohumoral and molecular bioregulators.

整个身体平衡的自我调节,包括对昼夜节律的调节,神经内分泌的调节和分子生物调节。

  • Geroprotective substances – e.g. anti-glycemic, statins, anti-coagulant, anti-oxidant, hormone-modulating, mitochondria-modulating, anti-inflammatory, probiotic and bioregulating medications.

抗衰老物质-例如,抗血糖、他汀、抗凝血、抗氧化、激素调节、线粒体调节、消炎、益生菌,以及生物调节类药物。

  • Detoxification at the cellular and molecular level – e.g. chelators, enterosorbents, AGE-breakers, oxido-reductive depolymerization, immunoclearance, enzymatic clearance, etc.

细胞和分子层面脱毒-例如,螯合剂、活性炭、AGE-breakers、氧化还原解聚、免疫净化、酶清除法等等。

  • Dietary supplementation – establishing dietary nutrient requirements for the elderly and during the entire life-course, e.g. using supplementation with vitamins, microelements, macroergics.

膳食补充剂-为老年人在整个生命进程中建立膳食营养需求,例如,补充维生素、微量元素、macroergics等。

  • Gene therapy and gene modulation – e.g. safe genetic engineering, epigenetic and pharmacological stimulation of “Longevity Genes” (e.g. Sirtuins and FOXO), attenuation of “Decay Accelerating Factors” (DAF), manipulation of longevity promoting genetic pathways (e.g. mTOR pathway), stimulation of telomerase activity, RNA interference, genetic and epigenetic longevity sequencing and screening.

基因疗法和基因调整-例如,安全的基因工程、对“长寿基因”在遗传学和药理学上的刺激(例如,Sirtuins和FOXO)、“衰变加速因子”(DAF)的衰减、对促进长寿的遗传途径的操纵(例如,mTOR pathway)、对端粒酶活性的刺激、RNA干扰、对遗传和表观遗传长寿的排序和筛选。

  • Nanomedicine – e.g. nanoparticles for drug delivery, emerging prototypes of artificial immunity and oxygen supply micro- and nano-devices, potentially devices for macromolecular tissue repair.

纳米医学-例如,用于药物输送的纳米粒、新兴的用于人工免疫和氧气供应的微型纳米器件的原型、进行高分子组织修复的潜在装置。

  • Artificial organ replacement and electrophysiological interfaces and stimulation – e.g. functional organ and limb prostheses, neuro-prostheses, advanced brain-computer interfaces, electrophysiological stimulation of impaired neurological and muscle functions.

人工器官替代、电生理学接口和刺激-例如,功能性器官和假肢、神经假体、先进的脑机接口、对受损的神经和肌肉进行电生理学刺激。

  • Quantified self – comprehensive self-monitoring and personalized diagnosis of vitality and age-related conditions, calculating regimens for balanced and healthy nutrition and sufficient physical activity for the aged.

量化自我-全面的自我监控、对生命力和与年龄相关的状况作出个性化的诊断、为老年人计算出平衡和健康的饮食和充足的锻炼方案。

  • Data mining – large health data analytics, discovering effective candidate interventions, formal and quantitative as well as visually accessible and interactive models of aging processes and diseases and anti-aging interventions.

数据挖掘-对健康大数据进行分析,发现有效的候选干预项,对衰老过程和疾病以及抗衰老干预建立正式、定量、视觉可见和交互式的模型。

Cryopreservation and chemopreservation – beneficial for organ or tissue transplantation and for a deeper insight into the physiology of aging.

冷冻保存和chemopreservation-有利于器官或组织的移植,也有利于更加深入了解生理上的老化。

Addressing aging-related debilitating processes through such biomedical means should become a new and powerful approach and medical standard for the prevention of non-communicable diseases, which affect most people at the later stages of life. The purpose of preventive medicine for the elderly, using advanced biomedical technologies, is to preserve health of an aging individual so as to prevent functional decline.

通过这些生物医学手段来解决与老化相关的衰弱问题,应当成为一种新型、有效的方法以及用于预防非传染性疾病的医学标准,这将影响多数人的老年生活。将先进的生物医学技术用于老年人的预防医药,其目的在于保持老年人的健康状况,以防止机体上的衰退。

Governments should ensure the creation and implementation of the following policies to promote research into the biology of aging and aging-related diseases, for improving the health of the global elderly population:

各国政府应当确保制定并实施以下政策,以推进对生理上的老化以及与老化相关的疾病的研究,以期提高全球老年人口的健康状况:

1) Funding:

  • Ensuring a significant increase of governmental and non-governmental funding for goal-directed (translational) research in preventing the degenerative aging processes, and the associated chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities, and for extending healthy and productive life, during the entire life course.

Specifically:

  • Dedicating a designated percentage of budget within relevant ministries, such as ministries of health and/or science, particularly in the divisions concerning research and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases.
  • Dedicating a specific percentage of the profits of commercial pharmacological, biotechnology and medical technology companies to such research and development.
  • Establishing relevant research grant programs on a competitive as well as goal-directed basis.
  • Doubling of funding for such research every 5 years for the next 20 years.

1) 金支持:

  • 确保政府及非政府资金加大在抗衰老研究方面的支出,同时资助非传染性慢性病及残疾领域的研究,以保证在延长寿命的同时提高生命质量和生育年限。

具体明:

  • 与相关部门商讨拿出一定比例的预算用于研究,比如卫生/科技部,尤其是有关非传染慢性病研究与治疗的分支部门。
  • 将商业制药、生物技术及医疗技术公司利润的一定比例贡献出来,用于此类研发。
  • 在确保竞争性及明确研究目标的基础上,设立相关科研补助金。
  • 在未来的20年内,每过5年就将此类研发经费翻倍。

2) Incentives:

  • Developing and adopting legal and regulatory frameworks that give incentives for goal-directed research and development designed to specifically address the development, registration, administration and accessibility of drugs, medical technologies and other therapies that will ameliorate the aging processes and associated diseases and extend healthy life.

Specifically:

  • Developing criteria for efficacy and safety of geroprotective therapies.
  • Facilitating in silico and animal testing, and ethical safety-enhanced human testing of such therapies.
  • Deploying and ensuring geroprotective therapies in the status of adjuvant and life-extending therapies.
  • Providing a shortened approval pathway for therapies with high level of efficacy evidence in preclinical and early clinical trials, as well as in cases of advanced degenerative and seemingly futile conditions.
  • Granting a special recognition, status and benefits to commercial and public entities engaged is such research and development.

2) 励机制:

  • 探索并采取合法的监管框架,促进以下技术的开发、注册、管理和实现:药物、医疗技术及其他可以缓解衰老进程及相关疾病、延长健康寿命的治疗方法。

具体说明:

  • 探索评价抗衰老手段疗效及安全性的机制。
  • 促进此类疗法的电脑模拟测试、动物测试,以及符合伦理且高度安全的人体测试。
  • 展开并确保抗衰老疗法用于辅助治疗及生命延长治疗。
  • 为在早期临床试验中具有高功效的,以及晚期却效果不明显的治疗方法提供简化的审批路径。
  • 对于在此领域进行研发活动的商业或公众实体,授予特定的认证、地位或津贴。

3) Institutions:

  • Establishing and expanding national and international coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions to steer promotion of research, development and education on the biology of aging and associated diseases and the development of clinical guidelines to modulate the aging processes and associated aging-related diseases and to extend the healthy and productive lifespan for the population.

Specifically:

  • Establishing Biogerontology specialty and courses in Biogerontology as a common part of university curriculum.
  • Developing and disseminating geroprotective regiments, based on the best available evidence, as part of authoritative health recommendations.
  • Establishing cooperative centers of excellence for fundamental, translational and applied studies, alongside centers for strategic analysis, forecast, education and policy development on aging and longevity research, at academic institutes and various governmental and supra-governmental agencies.

These measures are designed to reduce the burden of the aging process on the economy and to alleviate the suffering of the aged and the grief of their loved ones. On the positive side, if granted sufficient support, these measures can increase the healthy life expectancy for the elderly, extend their period of productivity and their interaction with society, and enhance their sense of enjoyment, purpose, equality and valuation of life.

3) 机构建立:

  • 建立并扩大国内国际合作及磋商的体系、项目和机构,以促进衰老及相关疾病的生物学研究、开发与教学,同时推进调控衰老进程和增龄性疾病临床指导原则的建立,从而延长人们的健康寿命与生育年限。

具体

  • 设立生物老年医学专业,并将老年医学课程设为大学的公共选修课。
  • 依托最好的可行的研究成果,发展并传播抗衰老理念,作为权威健康建议的一部分。
  • 在学术机构及各类政府、超政府机构中,设立基础研究、转化研究和应用研究优秀人才的合作研究中心,同时设立衰老、长寿方面的策略分析、预报、教育和政策优化中心。

这些措施旨在减少衰老进程给经济带来的负担,并减缓老年人的痛苦及其亲人的悲伤。从积极的一面来说,如果有充足的支持,这些措施可以为老年人增加健康的预期寿命,延长他们生育年限和与社会互动的年限,提高他们生活的幸福感、行动力,让他们更好地感受到生命的平等和价值。

 

International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD)

国际衰老与疾病协会(ISOAD

Executive Committee:

执行委员会:

Prof. Kunlin Jin. Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas, Health Science Center. Fort Worth, Texas, USA. ISOAD Chair

Email: kunlin.jin@unthsc.edu

Kunlin Jin教授:北德克萨斯大学,药理与神经科学系,健康科学中心,美国德克萨斯州Fort Worth市,ISOAD主席。

电子邮件:kunlin.jin@unthsc.edu

Prof. W. James Simpkins. Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University. Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. ISOAD President

Email: jwsimpkins@hsc.wvu.edu

James Simpkins教授:西弗吉尼亚大学基础与临床中风研究中心,美国西弗吉尼亚州Morgantown市。ISOAD总裁。

电子邮件: jwsimpkins@hsc.wvu.edu

Prof. Xunming Ji. Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University. Beijing, China. ISOAD Vice Chair

Email: jixunming@vip.163.com

Xunming Ji教授:首都医科大学宣武医院神经外科,中国北京市,ISOAD副主席。

电子邮件: jixunming@vip.163.com

Dr. Miriam Leis. Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research. Munich, Germany. ISOAD Policy Advisor

Email: miriam.leis@zv.fraunhofer.de

Miriam Leis博士:Fraunhofer应用研究促进协会,德国慕尼黑。ISOAD政策顾问。

电子邮件: miriam.leis@zv.fraunhofer.de

Dr. Ilia Stambler. Department of Science, Technology and Society, Bar Ilan University. Ramat Gan, Israel. ISOAD Outreach Coordinator

Email: ilia.stambler@gmail.com

Ilia Stambler博士:巴伊兰大学科技与社会系,以色列拉马特甘。ISOAD外联协调员。

电子邮件: ilia.stambler@gmail.com

Translators:

翻译者

Leo Zhao (赵际喆),Wei Sun(孙威),Lianqing Li(李连庆),Jack Lee (李昀清)

References

参考材料

[1] World Health Organization (2014). World Health Statistics – Large Gains in Life Expectancy. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/world-health-statistics-2014/en/.

[2] Human Mortality Database. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.mortality.org.

[3] United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from:  http://esa.un.org/wpp/.

[4] World Health Organization (2013). Draft Twelfth General Programme of Work. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/about/who_reform/programme_priority/en/.

[5] World Health Organization (2014). Ageing and Life Course. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/ageing/en/.

[6] United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Population Aging Report. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/.

[7] The International Longevity Center Global Alliance (2010). Global Aging Report. Threats to Longevity. A Call to Action. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.ilc-alliance.org/index.php/reports/.

[8] Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. (2012). Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380:2095-2128.

[9] Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, Lancet, 380:2224-2260.

[10] Kennedy BK, Berger SL, Brunet A, Campisi J, Cuervo AM, Epel ES, et al. (2014). Geroscience: linking aging to chronic disease. Cell, 59:709-713.

[11] Healthspan Campaign (2013). NIH Geroscience Interest Group (GSIG) Releases Recommendations from the October 2013 Advances in Geroscience Summit. Accessed December 2014. Retrieved from: http://healthspancampaign.org/2014/02/27/nih-geroscience-interest-group-gsig-releases-recommendations-october-2013-advances-geroscience-summit/

[12] Fahy GM, West MD, Coles LS, Harris SB (Eds). The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension. New York: Springer; 2010.

[13] Fontana L, Kennedy BK, Longo VD, Seals D, Melov S (2014). Medical research: treat ageing. Nature, 511:405-407.

[14] López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G (2013). The hallmarks of aging. Cell, 153:1194-1217.

[15] De Grey ADNJ, Rae M. Ending Aging. The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York: St. Martin’s Press; 2007.

[16] Goldman DP, Cutler D, Rowe JW, Michaud PC, Sullivan J, Peneva D, Olshansky SJ (2013). Substantial health and economic returns from delayed aging may warrant a new focus for medical research. Health Aff, 10:1698-1705.

[17] Rae MJ, Butler RN, Campisi J, de Grey ADNJ, Finch CE, Gough M, et al. (2010). The demographic and biomedical case for late-life interventions in aging. Sci Transl Med, 2:40cm21.

[18] Kanfi Y, Naiman S, Amir G, Peshti V, Zinman G, Nahum L, et al. (2012). The sirtuin SIRT6 regulates lifespan in male mice. Nature, 483:218-221.

[19] Atala A. Extending life using tissue and organ replacement (2008). Curr Aging Sci, 1:73-83.

[20] Baati T, Bourasset F, Gharbi N, Njim L, Abderrabba M, Kerkeni A, et al. (2012). The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60] fullerene. Biomaterials, 33:4936-4946.

[21] Kheir JN, Scharp LA, Borden MA, Swanson EJ, Loxley A, Reese JH, et al. (2012). Oxygen gas-filled microparticles provide intravenous oxygen delivery. Sci Transl Med, 4:140ra88.

[22] Shawn M. Douglas SM, Bachelet I, Church GM (2012). A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads. Science, 335:831-834.

[23] Kennedy BK, Pennypacker JK (2014). Drugs that modulate aging: the promising yet difficult path ahead. Transl Res, 163:456-465.

[24] Chung HY, Cesari M, Anton S, Marzetti E, Giovannini S, Seo AY, et al. (2009). Molecular inflammation: Underpinnings of aging and age-related diseases. Ageing Res Rev, 8:18-30.

[25] Lunn JS, Sakowski SA, Hur J, Feldman EL (2011). Stem cell technology for neurodegenerative diseases. Ann Neurol, 70:353-361.

[26] Baylis D, Bartlett DB, Patel HP, Roberts HC (2014). Understanding how we age: insights into inflammaging. Longev Healthspan, 3:6.

[27] Dai DF, Chiao YA, Marcinek DJ, Szeto HH, Rabinovitch PS (2014). Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aging and healthspan. Longev Healthspan, 3:6.

[28] Zieman S, Kass D (2004). Advanced glycation end product cross-linking: Pathophysiologic role and therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Congest Heart Fail, 10:144-149.

[29]      Bredenkamp N, Nowell CS, Blackburn CC (2014). Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor. Development, 141:1627-1637.

[30] This position paper of the International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD) was published on behalf of the ISOAD Executive Committee as: Kunlin Jin, James W. Simpkins, Xunming Ji, Miriam Leis, Ilia Stambler (2015). The critical need to promote research of aging and aging-related diseases to improve health and longevity of the elderly population. Aging Disease, 6(1):1-6 [Epub ahead of print].

参考材料

 

[1] 世界卫生组织(2014). 世界卫生统计 – 预期寿命增加,2014年12月 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/world-health-statistics-2014/en/. [Cited within: 1]
[2] 人类死亡率数据,2014年12月  http://www.mortality.org [Cited within: 1]
[3] 联合国经济和社会事务部, 人口部分(2011). 世界人口展望: 2010修订版, CD-ROM 版,2014年12月 http://esa.un.org/wpp/. [Cited within: 1]
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[5] 世界卫生组织 (2014). 生命与衰老教程 http://www.who.int/ageing/en/. [Cited within: 1]
[6] 联合国经济和社会事务部, 人口部分 (2013). 世界人口老龄化报告, 2014年12月 http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/ [Cited within: 1]
[7] 国际长寿中心全球联盟 (2010). 全球老龄化报告。威胁长寿,行动在召唤, 2014年12月, http://www.ilc-alliance.org/index.php/reports/ [Cited within: 1]
[8] Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V(2012). 全球和地区20个年龄组, 235起死亡, 1990-2010全球疾病负担研究系统分析,2010. Lancet, 380: 2095-2128 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 39.06]
[9] Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H(2012). 21个地区67个风险因素和风险因素群导致的疾病和损伤的负担比较风险评估报告,1990-2010全球疾病负担研究系统分析,2010. Lancet, 380: 2224-2260 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 39.06]
[10] Kennedy BK, Berger SL, Brunet A, Campisi J, Cuervo AM, Epel ES(2014). Geroscience: 老化和慢性疾病的链接. 细胞, 59: 709-713 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 31.957]
[11] 健康跨度运动(2013). 美国国立卫生研究院 Geroscience Interest Group (GSIG) 在geroscience峰会中发布建议2013年10月跃进, 2014年12月. http://healthspancampaign.org/2014/02/27/nihgeroscience-interest-group-gsig-releases-recommendations-october-2013-advances-geroscience-summit/ [Cited within: 1]
[12] Fahy GM, West MD, Coles LS, Harris SB 老龄化的未来:人类生命的途径 ExtensionNew YorkSpringer2010 [Cited within: 2]
[13] Fontana L, Kennedy BK, Longo VD, Seals D, Melov S(2014). 医学研究:治疗老化。自然, 511: 405-407 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 38.597]
[14] López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G(2013). 衰老的标志. 细胞, 153: 1194-1217 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 31.957]
[15] De Grey ADNJ, Rae M 结束衰老. 在我们有生之年可以返老还童的研究突破 New YorkSt. Martin’s Press2007 [Cited within: 1]
[16] Goldman DP, Cutler D, Rowe JW, Michaud PC, Sullivan J, Peneva D, Olshansky SJ(2013). 延缓衰老带来的大量的健康和经济回报可能成为医学研究的新焦点. Health Aff, 10: 1698-1705 [Cited within: 1]
[17] Rae MJ, Butler RN, Campisi J, de Grey ADNJ, Finch CE, Gough M(2010). 在生命后期衰老的人口和生物医学干预. Sci Transl Med, 2: 40cm21 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 10.757]
[18] Kanfi Y, Naiman S, Amir G, Peshti V, Zinman G, Nahum L(2012). Sirtuin SIRT6 对雄性小鼠寿命调节. 自然, 483: 218-221 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 38.597]
[19] Atala A 使用组织和器官替代延长生命. 2008). Curr Aging Sci, 1: 73-83 [Cited within: 1]
[20] Baati T, Bourasset F, Gharbi N, Njim L, Abderrabba M, Kerkeni A(2012). 通过反复口服给药[60] 富勒烯延长大鼠寿命. 生物材料, 33: 4936-4946 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 7.604]
[21] Kheir JN, Scharp LA, Borden MA, Swanson EJ, Loxley A, Reese JH(2012). 充满氧气的微粒提供静脉给氧. Sci Transl Med, 4: 140ra88 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 10.757]
[22] Shawn M, Douglas SM, Bachelet I, Church GM(2012). 有逻辑门控纳米机器人进行指定分子运输. Science, 335: 831-834 [Cited within: 1]
[23] Kennedy BK, Pennypacker JK(2014). 调节衰老的药物:一段有希望而艰难的路. Transl Res, 163: 456-465 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 3.49]
[24] Chung HY, Cesari M, Anton S, Marzetti E, Giovannini S, Seo AY(2009). 分子炎症:基础的老化和年龄有关的疾病. Ageing Res Rev, 8: 18-30 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 5.953]
[25] Lunn JS, Sakowski SA, Hur J, Feldman EL(2011). 神经退行性疾病的干细胞技术. Ann Neurol, 70: 353-361 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 11.193]
[26] Baylis D, Bartlett DB, Patel HP, Roberts HC(2014). 如何理解我们的年龄:洞察inflammaging. Longev Healthspan, 3: 6 [Cited within: 1]
[27] Dai DF, Chiao YA, Marcinek DJ, Szeto HH, Rabinovitch PS(2014). 在衰老过程和健康跨度中的线粒体氧化应激. Longev Healthspan, 3: 6 [Cited within: 1]
[28] Zieman S, Kass D(2004). 晚期糖基化终端产品的交联作用:病理生理学和治疗心血管疾病的目标. Congest Heart Fail, 10: 144-149 [Cited within: 1]
[29] Bredenkamp N, Nowell CS, Blackburn CC(2014). 由一个单一的转录因子再生老年胸腺. Development, 141: 1627-1637 [Cited within: 1] [JCR: 6.208]
[30] 本文以国际衰老与疾病协会执行委员会名义出版,该委员会成员包括Kunlin Jin, James W. Simpkins, Xunming Ji, Miriam Leis和Ilia Stambler (2015)。推动针对衰老和衰老相关疾病研究,以提高老年人群的健康与长寿的迫切需要。老化疾病,6(1):1-6 [电子版先于印刷版]。

 

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